The basis for the construction of diodes and transistors A semiconductor is a material whose electrical conductivity is between the conductors and insulators. Their resistance and conductivity depends on temperature and admixtures. [W] The most commercially used semiconductors are those based on silicon, and in the past also on germanium. In addition to these two elements (in crystalline form), a whole spectrum of other substances from groups 13-15 is used, which can form two, three or four-element compounds. P-n junction The basic element of a semiconductor system [003] Additions of atoms of other elements are used to obtain the increased

Energy in a magnetic field [209] Just as a capacitor works by storing energy as an electric field, an inductor stores energy as a magnetic field. The energy stored in the coil is calculated in terms of current. The capacitor acts as an insulator of the circuit while the inductor acts as its conductor. The coils have inductance expressed in henry [H]. The coils are plugged into the circuit in series with the powered device. The coils are characterized by a maximum current, as their windings have a certain resistance, therefore the flow of current causes a voltage to accumulate

Lowering the voltage value [202] The next example I want to present in practice is a popular voltage divider. It allows the output voltage to be reduced to the desired value due to the properties described a little earlier. Bearing in mind the above formula, we can assume that we want to reduce the input voltage of 5V to the expected 2.5V at the output. So we use two 1K resistors connected in series. Examples available at https://github.com/michalasobczak/simple_hpc/tree/master/SeriesPartOne

Theory and practice [W] One of the basic principles of current flow is the first law of Kirchhoff, which says that for the electric circuit node, the algebraic sum of flow rates is zero. The sum of currents flowing into the node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of this node. This law results from the principle of keeping the load. Kirchhoff’s second law says that the sum of voltage drops in a closed circuit is zero, assuming that the voltage drop is its negative increase. [202] For the purposes of illustrating the law of Kirchhoff, I

Signal filtering [202] Capacitors are divided into polarized and non-polarized depending on whether the direction of their inclusion in the circuit is important. Generally speaking, capacitors filter the waveform of the power source. It is assumed that the longer lead from the capacitor is the positive pole, which is sometimes reflected in the marking in the diagram. Electrolytic capacitors consist of a metal cover and an electrolyte lined with paper. Non-polar (non-polarized) capacitors can be made of ceramic elements or foil. There are also tantalum capacitors which both offer high capacitance and relatively low losses. The physical size of a

Theory and practice [204] This is the SI unit of resistance. 1 ohm is the electrical resistance between two points on a conductor when a constant potential difference of one volt between the two points causes a current of one ampere in the conductor. Most, if not all, components have internal resistance, such as batteries. It is not a property that is easily measurable. Circuits intended to show some principles assume that, for example, the power source is an ideal cell and any internal resistances are compensated by additional components of such a circuit, assuming a certain margin of error.

Construction and testing of circuits in the TINA TI program To translate theory into practice, we can use the TINA package from DesignSoft for Texas Instruments. It is a tool for building virtual analog and digital circuits. The basic version provides the minimum necessary set of elements that can be arranged in the form of a circuit. However, the most important function (at least for me) is the ability to run simulations. All presented examples of simulations are prepared in TINA TI V9 (Schematic Editor), Special Complementary Basic Edition available free of charge. The schema sources are in the repository

Measure of the strength of electric charges. Electrostatic potential difference. Electronics is based on physics. The basic concepts here are voltage, current and resistance. We should start with that. The voltage is therefore a measure of the strength of electric charges. The voltage between two points of an electric circuit or electric field is the difference in electrostatic potential between these points. We measure voltage in volts. We use a voltmeter to measure the voltage. We always measure voltage between two points because it is a potential difference. The voltage can be constant, variable, alternating. Why we use a given

Podstawy elektroniki i budowa komputera w symulatorze “Jest to pierwsza część serii Simple High Performance Computing o tytule Podstawy elektroniki i budowa komputera w symulatorze. Swoim zakresem obejmuje zagadnienia związane z elektroniką, a konkretnie jej podstawami, począwszy od pierwotnych zasad fizyki przekładających się na komponenty elektroniczne, z których można budować złożone układy, a finalnie najprostszą obliczeniową maszynę cyfrową. Największy nacisk kładę na praktyczną część zagadnienia, aczkolwiek teoria również jest przedstawiana.“